The overarching scientific objective of PROTECT is to assess and project changes in the land-based cryosphere, with fully quantified uncertainties, in order to produce robust global, regional and local projections of SLR on a range of timescales. 

4DGreenland moves towards an integrated assessment of Greenland’s hydrological system through maximizing the use of Earth Observation data to yield a comprehensive understanding of the ice sheet hydrology. The project is a part of ESA’s Polar Science Cluster of projects and aims at increasing our understanding of the dynamics of the system through quantification of the three major components and their interconnections: surface melt processes, supraglacial dynamics, and subglacial melt, storage, and drainage, 4DGreenland will allow for better projections of Greenland’s ice mass balance under future climate change. See more at

The Earth Observation for Surface Mass Balance (EO4SMB) study addresses Theme 4 of ESA’s POLAR+ call, and forms part of ESA’s Polar Science Cluster of projects. The aim of EO4SMB is to investigate the feasibility of measuring ice sheet Surface Mass Balance from space. The study will focus primarily on exploiting measurements from ESA’s ice mission, CryoSat-2, to derive a portfolio of SMB parameters covering the period 2010-2020. See more at

At, the Danish Arctic research institutions are present updated knowledge on the condition of two major components of the Arctic: The Greenland Ice Sheet and the sea ice. See more at

ArcFlux is an ESA project that is part of the Arctic+ STSE program. The main objective of Arcflux is to determine the freshwater budget of the Arctic Ocean, by maximizing the use of EO data in the determination of the individual freshwater fluxes. See more at